The main grape varieties

The white grapes

Chardonnay :

This is the most common worldwide white wine grape. It has a very fragrant, delicate and fresh bouquet. It is widely used in Champagne and Burgundy for manufacturing Chablis in particular.

Sauvignon :

It is a white grape widely used in Bordeaux, in the South-West and in the Pays de la Loire. It enters into the composition of Pouilly Fumé, Quincy and Sancerre for example. It is characterized by its freshness and vivacity.

Muscadet :

Originally from Bourgogne, it is also found in the Nantais country. It has very floral notes with hints of citrus, lemon and grapefruit. It is rather low acidity but does not have a great aging potential.


This white grape variety is mainly used in Bordeaux in particular for the manufacture of white Sauternes and Graves wines. This grape is quite fruity and has the ability to manufacture the noble rot that enriches its sugar content and gives all his noble wines of Sauternes.


This variety is well known and highly regarded winemakers in Anjou. It produces wines rather lively and structured and is particularly suited to the development of dry white wine as well as wine sweet and sparkling with hints of flowers and honey.


Another widespread white grape in Bordeaux and associated Sauvignon and Muscadelle country, he participated in the excellent wines of Sauternes. This characteristic of the produce dry and lively white wines and grain gives it a sweet and slightly acidic side. This Muscadelle, grains can be quickly be infested by the noble rot that participates in the sugar intake of grains.

Pinot blanc:

He is a native grape of Bourgonne, it has sometimes been confused with chardonnay even if there is no genetic link with him. It draws a wine like chardonnay but coarser, less spicy and less care. It reveals an aroma of apple.


The success of this variety is forged in Alsace and Germany. These red beans give a very spicy and crisp white juice with a very characteristic aromas. It brings balance and freshness very distinctive mouth. It is grown for dry white wines, soft (late harvest) or sweet (selection of noble grain) highly appreciated by connoisseurs.


This is an Austrian-born grape widely grown in Alsace, Germany and Italy. It is vigorous and productive, it gives a neutral and slightly tangy flavor.


It is a grape originally from Germany, who is renowned in Alsace and beyond the Rhine. It produces elegant and aromatic dry wines and sweet wines. It brings flavors or blend of fruity, floral and mineral.


It is a noble grape variety grown in one region. It produces wines for aging, and reveals a strong personality. It brings notes of nuts to the aroma of wine.

Klevener de Heiligenstein:

Name given in the Alsace grape savagnin rose grown around the region Heiligenstein.

Muscat d'Alsace:

Muscat is a large family of ancient aromatic varieties which is usually white. The Alsace Muscat and Muscat Ottonel also call comes from a cross between two grape Muscat Muscat de Saumur and Chasselas. The Muscat wine differs from others because it is usually vinified to give a dry wine. It gives a very aromatic white wine, it is ranked among those products from the "noble grapes" Alsatian.

The red Grapes

Grenache :

It is found mainly in the Languedoc and the Rhone Valley. It is recognized by its power, its bold side in the mouth but also its flexibility. This grape is also used for the manufacture of Banyuls and Maury, and sweet wines of the Languedoc.

Merlot :

This variety is found mainly in the Bordeaux region where it is found in the composition of the greatest wines of Bordeaux (Château Petrus for example). It provides full-bodied and supple enough notes. It transmits the roundness to the wine and tenderness in the mouth. It contains mostly red fruit aromas and spices.

Syrah :

Another great variety of Languedoc and the Rhone Valley, this is a very powerful and intense red grape. It has a characteristic nose of violet, raspberry and blackberry. It also includes hints of leather and spice.

Gamay :

This variety is especially Beaujolais, but in Bourgone, the Loire Valley, Savoy and Auvergne. He brings his hand fruity wine and flexibility as well as aromas of strawberry and cherry. It enters of course into the composition the famous Beaujolais Nouveau.

Cabernet Franc :

It is the second largest grape of Bordeaux with Merlot. It is also found in the Loire Valley. It develops characteristic aromas of red fruit, raspberry, blackberry, blackcurrant and particularity to provide some flexibility to the wine.

Cabernet Sauvignon:

It is one of the noble grapes of Bordeaux and it is mainly used in the Medoc and Graves. Its culture has also spread in the Loire Valley, Provence, Languedoc and in the Southwest. It is a grape that gives strong tannin juice with blackcurrant and green pepper. It develops over time a very delicate bouquet.

Pinot Noir :

This great grape of Borgogne is also grown in Alsace and the Jura. It is also one of the three grapes used in Champagne with Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier. There are aromas of red fruit (raspberry, strawberry, blackcurrant, blackberry).


This red grape is one of the oldest vines in the south of France. It gives the grapes rather sweet and with a high potential juice. However, its weakness is its lack of tannin that is why it is most often associated with other varieties such as Grenache and Syrah.


The Mourvèdre is mainly used in the Rhone Valley and is part of the oldest French varietals. It can resist heat and strong insolation and gives a rather full-bodied and tannic enough juice.

New trends in viticulture

The biodynamic agriculture:

The principle of biodynamics was invented in 1924 by a doctor Austrian named Rudolf Steiner. This farming technique does not stop at simply eliminating fertilizers and chemicals in grape growing, but it is especially rethink how land is treated and the vine . The fundamental principle governing biodynamics is that nature knows itself to fight against diseases, fungi, insects ... You just have to give him the means valuing soil through natural fertilizers from plant compositions. The contribution of biodynamics in the field can be considerable.

Biodynamics provides more balanced and structured wines.

The label Dementer was put in place to guarantee to consumers that the products they buy come from a program in biodynamic agriculture.

Organic farming: </ u>

The bio is part of the major trends in recent years in agriculture, but of course in any society. In order to qualify to receive the label of organic wine, the winemaker must meet the specifications established for the Department of Agriculture and the European Union. In this specification include, among others, the prohibition of the use of chemical fertilizers or even the obligation to submit to regular inspections of the vine and wine. Organic wine label has existed since 2010 and the number of farmers who now produce organic wine has more than doubled since 2001 in France.

The main Incoterms CCI 2010

EXW (Ex Works): Initialy,unloaded and duty paid, say "factory output"

FOB (Free on Board): Transport to the port of departure without insurance

CIP (Cost, Insurance, Freight): Transport to the port of departure with insurance include

DDP (Delivery Duty Paid): Transport to the consignee with enter tax paid

The manufacturing steps of Champagne

the harvest: In Champagne, the grapes are always done by hand and the grapes are carefully selected to take only the finest grapes to obtain a high quality champagne. In Champagne, pincipalement three varieties are used: Pinot Black, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay. Crops thus obtained are then sent directly to the press.

The pressing : Immediately after harvesting, the grapes, which were removed from the cluster, are placed in a press to extract the juice (called the musts). For press 4000kg, it usually gets 2,500 liters of grape. Pressing is done gently and gradually so as not to stain the must with the skins. There are two qualities of juices: the first is the "Cuvée" (the first release) that has the best quality and the "size".

The fermentation alcoholic : the musts obtained are placed in vats to a first fermentation is done. The juice turns into wine under the action of the yeast eats the sugar and creates carbon dioxide. The result is a still wine (without effervescence).

The fermentation malolactic : This fermentation is not required and is not performed by all champagne houses or on all wines. It consists in converting the malic acid present naturally in wine to lactic acid by the action of bacteria. This action helps to soften the acids in the wine and give it more flexibility.

The assembling :At this stage, the different varieties are blended according to the wishes of the champagne houses. The role of the cellar master is so important because he is assisted by œnologists, which assembles the different varieties. Thus, one can assemble two or three varieties together and even make sparkling "single varietal". For a non-vintage champagne, you can also use reserve wines to achieve a champagne taste and a flavor equal over the years. Once all finished, the wine is bottled. The draw: the wine is bottled and it adds a "tirage" composed of yeast and sugar. This liquor will involve a final fermentation which will create excitement.

The foam : yeasts will then convert the sugar into alcohol using the oxygen in the bottle and then releases carbon dioxide and thus the champagne is a sparkling wine. The pressure inside the bottle will then be up to 6 bars and the alcohol content will reach it, 10 to 12 °.

LThe maturation : In Champagne, the periode of maturation on lees for non-vintage champagne is a minimum of 15 months, but most of the houses beyond this period to get a better quality champagne. This period is 3 years for vintage champagnes. </ Span>

The Riddling /u> :Once all the sugar consumed, the yeast is inactive. However, they are obviously unfit for consumption and should be deported. The stirring action will allow yeast to rise to the neck of the bottle. This can be done manually (especially for prestige wines) or mechanically by gyropallets.

The disgorgement : Once fully lifts yeasts in the neck of the bottle, the neck are frozen in a glycol solution at -25 ° to create a plug of ice that, for the same, yeasts. Is then opened and the bottle under the effect of pressure, the ice plug is expelled. We then added the dosage liqueur made ​​of sugar and will then give its content in sugar champagne.

The different dosages champagne :

• Brut nature (0 to 3g sugar/L - Residual Sugar)

• Extra Brut (3 to 6gr sugar/L)

• Brut (6 to 12gr sugar/L)

• Extra sec - Extra Dry (12 to 17gr sugar/L)

• Sec (17 to 32gr sugar/L)

• Demi-Sec (32 to 50gr sugar/L)

• Doux (more 50gr sugar/ L)

Appellations in Bourgogne

The vineyards of Bourgogne covers 29,500 hectares and produces about 1.5 million hectoliters of wine or 200 million bottles annually. The naming system includes 100 Borgogne appellations in Borgogne divided into four types of names (regional, Villages, Premiers Crus, Grands Crus):

Appellation regional : they are 23 and are represented across the Borgogne vineyards (ex: Bourgogne Aligoté)

Appellation Villages : there are 44 and means that the wine is produced exclusively in the communes (ex: Chablis, Pommard) </ p>

Appellation Premiers Crus : there is lots of vineyards defined precisely in the villages (ex: Nuits-Saint-Georges) </ p>

Appellation Grands Crus : this is the best vineyards of Bourgogne vineyards and express the richness of the soils (eg Corton, Montrachet) </ span>

to Day, Bourgogne represents 3800 wineries, 250 houses and 23 cooperative cellar

The classification of Bordeaux wines

This classification was established by Napoleon III in 1855 on the occasion of the Universal Exhibition in Paris. </ Span> This ranking has 60 grands crus divided into five categories and grouping 3000 hectares of vineyards. It was revised in 1973 with only one change, promoting Mouton Rothschild to Premier Grand Cru Classé. </ Span>

The first Great Classified Growths:

• Château Lafite-Rothschild (Pauillac)

• Château Latour (Pauillac)

• Château Margaux (Margaux)

• Château Mouton-Rothschild (Pauillac) promoted in 1973

• Château Haut-Brion (Pessac-Léognan)

The Second Great Classified Growths:

• Château Rauzan-Ségla (Margaux)

• Château Rauzan-Gassies (Margaux)

• Château Léoville las cases (Saint-Julien)

• Château Léoville Poyferré (Saint-Julien)

• Château Léoville Barton (Saint-Julien)

• Château Durfort-Vivens (Margaux)

• Château Gruaud Larose (Saint-Julien)

• Château Lascombes (Margaux)

• Château Brane-Cantenac (Margaux)

• Château Pichon-Longueville-Baron (Pauillac)

• Château Pichon-Longueville-Comtesse de Lalande (Pauillac)

• Château Ducru-Beaucaillou (Saint-Julien)

• Château Cos d'Estournel (Saint-Estèphe)

• Château Montrose (Saint-Estèphe)

The Third Great Classified Growths:

• Château Kirwan (Margaux)

• Château d'Issan (Margaux)

• Château Lagrange (Saint-Julien)

• Château Langoa Barton (Saint-Julien)

• Château Gicours (Margaux)

• Château Malescot Saint-Exupéry (Margaux)

• Château Boyd-Cantenac (Margaux)

• Château Cantenac Brown (Margaux)

• Château Palmer (Margaux)

• Château la Lagune (Haut-Médoc)

• Château Desmirail (Margaux)

• Château Calon-Ségur (Saint-Estèphe)

• Château Ferrière (Margaux)

• Château Marquis d'Alesme Becker (Margaux)

the Fourth Great Classified Growths :

• Château Saint-Pierre (Saint-Julien)

• Château Talbot (Saint-Julien)

• Château Branaire-Ducru (Saint-Julien)

• Château Pouget (Margaux)

• Château Latour-Carnet (Haut Médoc)

• Château Lafon-Rocher (Saint-Estèphe)

• Château Beychevelle (Saint-Julien)

• Château Prieuré-Lichine (Margaux)

• Château Marquis de Terme (Margaux)

The Fifth Great Classified Growths:

• Château Pontet-Canet (Pauillac)

• Château Batailley (Pauillac)

• Château Haut-Batailley (Pauillac)

• Château Grand-Puy-Lacoste (Pauillac)

• Château Lynch-Bages (Pauillac)